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RNA Viruses in Dogs / RNA Viruses in Cats

RNA virus in dogs and cats

Herbal remedies for cats and dogs to help boost immunity and may help prevent immune system diseases by stimulating immune system response.

Natura Petz supplements for RNA Viruses and viral infections in dogs and cats

The immune system is a complex array of cells that are found throughout your pet’s body. Immune cells are designed to function in conjunction with one another to provide a fortified defense against unwanted invaders. It is an intricate system that keeps your pet healthy and protects them against all sorts of invaders including allergens, viruses, bacteria, microbes, parasites and toxins.

The immune system is also directed at facilitating normal function and is not intended to be suppressed or stimulated. In cases of dysfunction, an animal body requires whole body systemic support. If your pet’s immune system is weakened, every bodily system is at risk.

An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material. This nucleic acid is usually single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), but may be double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). RNA viruses that do not function as a retrovirus skip the DNA intermediate and replicate in the cytoplasm.

Another term for RNA viruses that explicitly excludes retroviruses is ribovirus.Notable human diseases caused by RNA viruses include SARS, influenza, hepatitis C, West Nile fever, polio and measles.

Viruses that replicate via RNA intermediates need an RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase to replicate their RNA, but animal cells do not seem to possess a suitable enzyme. Therefore, this type of animal RNA virus needs to code for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. No viral proteins can be made until the viral messenger RNA is available. Thus, the nature of the RNA in the virion affects the strategy of the virus.

Classification of the RNA viruses has proven to be a difficult problem. This is in part due to the high mutation rates these genomes undergo. Classification is based principally on the type of genome (double stranded, negative or positive single strand) and gene number and organisation. Currently there are 5 orders and 47 families of RNA viruses recognized. There are also a number of unassigned species and genera.

Plus-stranded RNA viruses are defined as when the virion (genomic) RNA is the same sense as mRNA and so functions as mRNA. This mRNA can be translated immediately upon infection of the host cell Examples include the poliovirus (picornavirus), toga viruses and flaviviruses. Negative-stranded RNA viruses are defined as occurring when the virion RNA is negative sense (complementary to mRNA) and must be copied into the complementary plus-sense mRNA before proteins can be made.  Besides needing to code for an RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase, these viruses also need to package it in the virion so that they can make mRNAs upon infecting the cell.

Examples include the rabies virus (rhabdovirus), influenza virus (orthomyxovirus) and measles virus, mumps virus, (paramyxoviruses). Double-stranded RNA viruses are defined as occurring when the virion (genomic) RNA is double stranded and so cannot function as mRNA; thus these viruses also need to package an RNA polymerase to make their mRNA after infection of the host cell. An example include the rotaviruses (belong to retrovirus family).

RNA viruses can be further classified according to the sense or polarity of their RNA into negative-sense and positive-sense, or ambisense RNA viruses. Positive-sense viral RNA is similar to mRNA and thus can be immediately translated by the host cell. Negative-sense viral RNA is complementary to mRNA and thus must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an RNA polymerase before translation. As such, purified RNA of a positive-sense virus can directly cause infection though it may be less infectious than the whole virus particle. Purified RNA of a negative-sense virus is not infectious by itself as it needs to be transcribed into positive-sense RNA; each virion can be transcribed to several positive-sense RNAs. Ambisense RNA viruses resemble negative-sense RNA viruses, except they also translate genes from the positive strand.

Double-stranded RNA viruses

The double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses represent a diverse group of viruses that vary widely in host range (humans, animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria), genome segment number (one to twelve), and virion organization (T-number, capsid layers, or turrets). Members of this group include the rotaviruses, renowned globally as the most common cause of gastroenteritis in young children, picobirnaviruses, renowned worldwide as the most commonly occurring virus in fecal samples of both humans and animals with or without signs of diarrhea. Picobirnaviruses have also been recently reported in respiratory tract samples of pigs and bluetongue virus, an economically important pathogen of cattle and sheep. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in determining, at atomic and subnanometeric levels, the structures of a number of key viral proteins and of the virion capsids of several dsRNA viruses, highlighting the significant parallels in the structure and replicative processes of many of these viruses.

Mutation rates

RNA viruses generally have very high mutation rates compared to DNA viruses, because viral RNA polymerases lack the proof-reading ability of DNA polymerases. This is one reason why it is difficult to make effective vaccines to prevent diseases caused by RNA viruses. Retroviruses also have a high mutation rate even though their DNA intermediate integrates into the host genome (and is thus subject to host DNA proofreading once integrated), because errors during reverse transcription are embedded into both strands of DNA before integration. Some genes of RNA virus are important to the viral replication cycles and mutations are not tolerated. For example, the region of the hepatitis C virus genome that encodes the core protein is highly conserved because it contains an RNA structure involved in an internal ribosome entry site.

Positive strand RNA viruses

This is the single largest group of RNA viruses with 30 families. Attempts have been made to group these families in higher orders. These proposals were based on an analysis of the RNA polymerases and are still under consideration. To date the suggestions proposed have not been broadly accepted because of doubts over the suitability of a single gene to determine the taxonomy of the clade.

The proposed classification of positive strand RNA viruses is based on the RNA dependent RNA polymerase. Three groups have been recognized.  I. Bymoviruses, Como viruses, nepoviruses, nodaviruses, picornaviruses, potyviruses, sobemoviruses and a subset of luteoviruses (beet western yellows virus and potato leaf roll virus) - the picorna like group (Picornavirata).

A division of the alpha like (Sindbis-like) super group on the basis of a novel domain located near the N termini of the proteins involved in viral replication has been proposed. The two groups proposed are: the 'alto virus' group (alpha viruses, furoviruses, hepatitis E virus, hordeiviruses, tobamoviruses, tobraviruses, tricornaviruses and probably rubiviruses); and the 'typo virus' group (apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Carla viruses, potexviruses and tymoviruses).

The alpha like super group can be further divided into three clades: the rubi-like, tobamo-like and tymo-like viruses.

Canine distemper is transmitted through the exposure of airborne viral particles in the respiratory secretions of dogs and puppies. Outbreaks of canine distemper tend to be sporadic. Dogs and puppies that are younger than six months old and have not been immunized are at an increased risk of developing this infection.

The best way to prevent canine distemper is ensuring that your pet receives the distemper vaccination. Puppies that have not been vaccinated are more prone to viral infections because their immune systems are still weak.

Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease that affects the gastrointestinal, respiratory and nervous systems of puppies and dogs. This virus also infects other wild animals such as foxes, raccoons, skunks, wolves, coyotes and ferrets; therefore, it is very important that you keep your dogs away from other wildlife to avoid the virus from spreading.

The course of the disease may be short and explosive. Advanced cases may cause death within hours. Typically, the sickness may go on for three or four days after the first elevation of body temperature. Fever will fluctuate during the illness and abruptly fall to subnormal levels shortly before death. Other signs in later stages may be diarrhea, anemia, dehydration, and persistent vomiting.

Herbal Nutrition - (listed in order of relevance and recommendation by holistic vets - human grade meets/exceeds highest safety criteria for pets)

Herbal remedies have proven to be highly beneficial in helping support the immune, endocrine, respiratory and digestive systems, to help counteract viral infections due to their natural plant chemical array as anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-septic, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and pain relieving; used adjunctively as safe, gentle and effective options to help support symptoms of RNA viruses; as an adjunctive support for distemper; to help protect against fever, diarrhea, respiratory symptoms and are without the harmful side effects of conventional medications.

Seal ‘Em & Heal ‘Em – (learn more) capsules, tincture,  powder may help promote healing for all types of wounds, including hot spots, abscess, abrasions, bites, cuts, scrapes, skin irritations, infections, viruses, bacteria, fungi and germs; for bleeding & hemorrhaging conditions, ulcers, GERD, esophaghitis & other degenerative conditions of the larynx & throat; adjunctively and holistically to help address conditional needs of DNA and RNA viruses; used holistically to help address conditional needs related to respiratory viruses A and B (RSV) and influenza virus A (FLU-A) and para-influenza (PIV); may help inhibit bacterial and microbial skin fungus infections related to Staphylococcus aurous, S. epidermis and other gram negative bacteria such as enterobacteria, citrobacteria, salmonella; may help provide cellular support of tissue, skin & coat; for gastrointestinal distress; as a neurasthenic that may help block the activation of nerve fibers & tissue response to inflammation, supporting the body's tissue repair mechanism to help stop mutations (important in the treatment of all types of Lyme disease, including Lyme borealis, burgdorferi, borreliosis & Chronic Lyme disease (CLD); and may help remove plague and tartar upon application to help support healthy teeth and gums.; Strongly anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-spasmodic, antibiotic, anti-septic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerous, anti-Candidal and reduces nerve pain associated with wounds and injury.

Shake Ur Groove Thing – (learn more) promotes healthy bowel function, purification, gentle parasitic detoxification and body clarification; waste and toxin removal, including pesticides, environmental toxins found inside and outside the home, chemicals related to flea and tick products and drugs regimens such as NSAID’s and synthetic glucosteriods and corticosteroids; helps remove inorganic synthetic and derivative compounds from an animal’s cell walls to help reduce toxic load in the body; also used for cramping, pain, constipation, gas and bloating; helps support a correct balance of native intestinal flora and helps calms the digestive system; promotes immune balance and helps to limit inflammation, which is important in disease prevention; used holistically for anal fissures, fistulas, hemorrhoids, food allergies and hypersensitivities and as a general skin support. 

Joint Ease Super Dog & Cat – (learn more) contains plant and marine extracts that promote preventative and reparative support to rebuild tissue, joints, bones and muscles, supports healthy immune and inflammatory response, for rheumatism, for arthritis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, rheumatism, Degenerative Joint Disease, Intervertebral Disk Disease and arthrosis, for muscle pains, strains, injuries and other degenerative joint related diseases, for pain, as a pain reliever for swelling and lack of mobility, for overall optimal health and function and as a natural alternative for tumors and cysts.

I Cell-Ebrate Life (learn more) antioxidants help promote healthy cell and cell membrane support; helps promotes connective tissue, skin and coat support and antioxidant protection against free radicals, which is important in disease prevention; helps standardize normal cell operation; encourages free radical scavenging of cysts, tumors and lipomas; may help address symptoms related to Lyme disease; for its adaptogen content which may help identify metabolic, oxidative, physiological and physical dysfunction; provides nutritional, biochemical and plant botanical support of healthy immune cells; promotes optimal immune protection and systematic health and strength; supports bone, teeth and muscle health and integrity and for animals that need extra joint, immune, circulatory and vascular support; may help counteract Staph infections and DNA and RNA viruses.

I Want Liquid Immunity -  (learn more) contains water-soluble plant bioflavonoids that function as potent antioxidants which are important in disease prevention; used adjunctively for growth abnormalities such as tumors, cysts and lipomas (often related to poor diet, excessive medication, environmental toxicity as well as aberrant cellular mutations); provides antioxidant protection against free radicals; helps promote cellular health and to reduce catabolic waste; may help address symptoms related to allergies, Lyme disease and other auto immune diseases; provides nutritional, biochemical and plant botanical support of healthy immune cells; promotes optimal immune protection and systematic health and strength; supports bone, teeth and muscle health and integrity and for animals that need extra joint, immune, circulatory and vascular support. Strongly anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-microbial and anti-mutagenic.

Conventional Remedies:

Treatment usually involves addressing secondary infections, as there are no medications available to kill this particular virus.

Medications are aimed at controlling symptoms, and intravenous fluids may be administered. Once you have taken your pet home, avoid contact with other dogs and cats, keep him warm and provide good supportive care. It is vital that excellent hygiene is maintained to avoid transferring the infection to other dogs.

The diagnosis of canine distemper is based on the symptoms, your dog’s vaccination history and certain laboratory tests. Various tests such as blood tests, x-rays, CT scans, cerebrospinal fluid, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence assay may be performed to confirm the diagnosis of canine distemper.

The best way to prevent canine distemper is ensuring that your puppy or dog receives the distemper vaccination.

 

 

 

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